Synology Backup Synology to Unraid

The easiest way to backup a Synology NAS to Unraid Server is to use Hyper Backup on Synology and rsync on Unraid.

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First, enable rsync on your Unraid Server. It is preinstalled but not runing as a daemon.

Create a file /boot/custom/etc/rsyncd.conf with the following content:

uid             = root
gid             = root
use chroot      = no
max connections = 4
pid file        = /var/run/rsyncd.pid
timeout         = 600

[backups]
    path = /mnt/user/backups
    comment = Backups
    read only = FALSE

Here above:

The name "backups" between brackets will be visible as "backup module" from the Synology. You can create several blocks like this one.

The "path" must exist on your Unraid server.

 

Next, create a file /boot/custom/etc/rc.d/S20-init.rsyncd with the following content:

#!/bin/bash

if ! grep ^rsync /etc/inetd.conf > /dev/null ; then
cat <<-EOF >> /etc/inetd.conf
rsync   stream  tcp     nowait  root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/bin/rsync --daemon
EOF
read PID < /var/run/inetd.pid
kill -1 ${PID}
fi

cp /boot/custom/etc/rsyncd.conf /etc/rsyncd.conf

Finally, add the following line in the file /boot/config/go :

#!/bin/bash
/boot/custom/etc/rc.d/S20-init.rsyncd

 

Now, either reboot or execute: bash /boot/custom/etc/rc.d/S20-init.rsyncd

 

Go now on your Synology and open "Hyper Backup" to Create a new Data Backup Task:

Select rsync as Backup Destination:

And Create the backup Task with "rsync-compatible server" as Server Type:

Tips Use HDMI output of Lenovo ideapad Yoga 500 to get Dual Screen

When I connected for the first time my Lenovo Yoga on my TV, using a HDMI cable, I couldn't extend my Desktop to this second screen, using the F10 key. The solution was to do via the Intel Graphics Settings.

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  • Right Click on the Desktop to access its Display menu:

  • Click on the button "Detect":

  • Once the second screen has been detected, click either on "Clone Displays" or "Extended Desktop" and then Click "Yes" to apply the change:

 

Notice: I also had an issue with the HDMI port. I think this issue results from the pulling force exerted the each time one opens or closes it (the hdmi port is really next the lid). The "contacts" of the port are faulty (Loose contacts). As a solution, I had to push up the cable lightly up to force a good contact.

Synology GateOne not opening anymore on Synology as being "unsafe" due to an expired certificate.

There are many many reasons why sometimes GateOne does not open correctly on Synology. One of those is the expiration of your certificate.

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Notice that I am using my own packaging of GateOne for Synology (to be found here). In order to run properly, GateOne needs a copy of the certificates of your Synology. My Package is taking care of that during the installation. But if the system certificate expired or is renewed, GateOne will be in trouble as long as you don't copy yourself the renewed certificate into its setup folder. The symptoms are:

If you open GateOne in a DSM window, you get this: "The webpage at xxx might be temporarily down"

If you open GateOne in a new window, you get this: "Your Connection is not private", ERR_CERT_DATE_INVALID

If you click on Advanced, you see that "this server could not prove it is xxx : its security certificate expired xxx days ago":

If you click on "Proceed to xxx (unsafe)", GateOne will open in a new window. But if opened in the DSM, it will display the following messages:

To solve this, if you didn't renew your certificates yet, do it ! Go to the "Control Panel" > "Security" > "Certificate". Select your certificates one by one and open the "Add" menu + select "Renew certificate"

An alternative is to open a SSH console (See here) and execute the command: /usr/syno/sbin/syno-letsencrypt renew-all -vv

Once the certificates are renewed, in a SSH console, execute:

  • cp /usr/syno/etc/certificate/system/default/cert.pem /var/packages/MODS_GateOne/target/ssl/cert.pem
  • cp /usr/syno/etc/certificate/system/default/privkey.pem /var/packages/MODS_GateOne/target/ssl/privkey.pem
  • /usr/syno/bin/synopkg restart MODS_GateOne

Notice: the path "/var/packages/MODS_GateOne/target" is only valid for GateOne installed with my own package. The path of the official package is probably "/usr/local/gateone/ssl/".

Tips Cannot use inventory in Vivecraft

My daughter suddenly couldn't use the inventory anymore in Vivecraft, once opened. She couldn't pick or move items in there. The cause was that Vivecraft's window was not active on the PC at that moment.

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Vivecraft is a mod that turns Minecraft into an exceptional VR experience. Concretely, I use it to run the game from SteamVR and play with it using my HTC Vive pro setup (Be sure to setup and run the game as explained here. Launching the game from the VR Room or Steam does not work).

When my daughter experienced her issue with the inventory, I was working on the PC at the same time. Vivecraft works indeed fine if someone else is using the PC, as long as you don't need the mouse to interact with the game. And this is the case  when you want to use the inventory or use some menus.

Concretely, on the screenshot here under, the cursor + will only appear if, on the PC, the window of the game is activated. I.e.: if you clicked on it with the mouse or used Alt-Tab to give it the focus.

Vivecraft inventory

Vivecraft inventory

So, each time my daughter want to use the inventory, I temporarily give the focus to the window of ViveCraft by switching to it with Alt -Tab. I can next continue to work...

Et voilà.

SmartHome OpenHab: ServiceLocatorImpl has been shut down

I found a weird error by accident in the openhab.log of my Synology. It was due to the "Localisation" not configured properly in openHab's System.

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I found that error after stopping and starting manually openHab from a SSH console opened on my Synology to solve another issue.

To stop openHab installed on a Synology as explained here, via a SSH console run as root (as explained here), execute:

  • cd /var/packages/openHAB/target
  • ./runtime/bin/stop

To restart openHab later execute:

  • ./runtime/bin/start

NB.: if you execute this command soon after the stop, it won't work. You can simply re-execute the command a second time.

Here are more details about the error that I found in the log (located into \\<YourNas>\SmartHome\openHAB\userdata\logs\openhab.log)

javax.servlet.ServletException: javax.servlet.ServletException: A MultiException has 1 exceptions. They are:
1. java.lang.IllegalStateException: ServiceLocatorImpl(__HK2_Generated_2,3,718060201) has been shut down

at org.ops4j.pax.web.service.jetty.internal.JettyServerHandlerCollection.handle(JettyServerHandlerCollection.java:88) ~[bundleFile:?]
at org.eclipse.jetty.server.handler.HandlerWrapper.handle(HandlerWrapper.java:127) ~[bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.server.Server.handle(Server.java:494) ~[bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.server.HttpChannel.handle(HttpChannel.java:374) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.server.HttpConnection.onFillable(HttpConnection.java:268) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.io.AbstractConnection$ReadCallback.succeeded(AbstractConnection.java:311) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.io.FillInterest.fillable(FillInterest.java:103) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.io.ChannelEndPoint$2.run(ChannelEndPoint.java:117) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.strategy.EatWhatYouKill.runTask(EatWhatYouKill.java:336) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.strategy.EatWhatYouKill.doProduce(EatWhatYouKill.java:313) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.strategy.EatWhatYouKill.tryProduce(EatWhatYouKill.java:171) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.strategy.EatWhatYouKill.run(EatWhatYouKill.java:129) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.ReservedThreadExecutor$ReservedThread.run(ReservedThreadExecutor.java:367) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.QueuedThreadPool.runJob(QueuedThreadPool.java:782) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at org.eclipse.jetty.util.thread.QueuedThreadPool$Runner.run(QueuedThreadPool.java:918) [bundleFile:9.4.20.v20190813]
at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:748) [?:1.8.0_131]

This error appears because the location is not set in OpenHAB and your browser probably didn't have the permission to pass its own location to openhab.

The issue can be resolved by manually via the PaperUI > Configuration > System > Regional Settings.  There, define your language, your country/region, your Time Zone and your location (with a latitude and longitude - or - by moving the openHab pin onto your location).

SmartHome Troubleshoot Z-Wave Controller used by OpenHab

After reinstalling openHab on a new Synology, I had some 'Unknown' Z-Wave devices. The only way to et rid of them was to use "Z-Wave PC Controller" from  Silabs (previously named "Zensys tool").

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This is what was displayed in the Paper UI of openHab:

To solve this, I had two options:

The first option was to use the PaperUI's features of openHab to heal, reinitialize the device or remove the device.

The other option was to remove my Z-Wave Controller from my Synology, and plug in into a PC to clean it using Z-Wave PC Controller.

Use PaperUI's feature

Select your device via the PaperUI > Configurations > Things, click on the "Edit icon" (The pen in a blue disc) and scroll to click on the "Show More" link :

There, you have access to the various features :

Try those two actions:

  • "Heal the device" (See here) : it can be useful when the Z-Wave mesh is messed up and nodes become 'lost'.
  • "Reinitialise the device" : it does not hurt ;)

Wait next for a few minutes and refresh your PaperUI to check if the device is know fully recognized. 

Also check if there are any errors in the logs of openHab: events.log and openhab.log. If you installed openHab on your Synology as explained here, those logs are under the Shared Folder \\<YourNas>\SmartHome\openHAB\userdata\logs\

Install Z-Wave PC Controller

The download this software I had to find a "valid" Silabs account. Indeed, standard accounts have no access to the download section. Searching for "Silabs.com" on http://bugmenot.com, we find easily such "valid" account.

Once authenticated on Silbas.com, go to the Z-wave page here, and go to the "PC Programmer" section and click on Download Z-Wave Programmer

On the next page, click on the Download button in the upper-right corner (If it is not accessible anymore, find the msi in the attachement section of this post).

Unzip the archive and install the "PC Controller" (/bin/ZWaveControllerSetup.msi)

Clean-up your Z-Wave Controller

Now, plug your Z-Wave controller in your PC and open "PC Controller":

Click on the Gear icon in the upper-right corner to configure the software to use your Z-Wave Controller. You should see it in the pane "Serial Port Data Sources". Select it and click on "Ok" at the bottom-right:

Now, you have access to all the "data" (Z-Wave devices) configured previously on your controller. Here under, you can see that I have 13 nodes available:

To check which nodes are not yet available, Click on the top-left tail "Network Management". This will show you a list of all configured nodes. For each node, one by one, select it and press on "Is Failed". If the node cannot be accessed, it will be marked in red (See the nodes 23 and 24 here under). You can then remove it by clicking on "Remove Failed".

For each remaining node, you could click on "Node Info". This will collect more information than your controller did when it was connected on your Synology and managed by openHab.

You can add new devices easily, using the "Add" button. I did it for a Fibaro Heat Controller that I couldn't add via openHab.

You can test your Z-Wave Switches using "Basic Set ON" and "Basic Set OFF".

You can look at the topology of your mesh, using the tail "IMA Network" and by clicking on "Network Health".

Once you have cleaned-up your controller, you can re-plug it into your NAS.

Unplug/Re-plug a Z-Wave Controller on a Synology

When you remove and replug such a controller, it usually gets a new "terminal" (=a "new port"). A terminal is physically represented by a file named 'tty...' in the /dev folder and is the communication channel between the system (your Synology) and hardwares like the USB devices. By default, the terminal for the Z-Wave controller will be /dev/ttyACM0. But when you remove and replug it, it can get /dev/ttyACM1.

To check which terminal is used, open a SSH console on your NAS (as explained here) and type: ls -la /dev/ttyA*

You should get something like:
crwxrwxrwx 1 openhab dialout 166, 1 Dec 31 14:26 /dev/ttyACM0

If there are several terminals, unplug to Z-Wave controller, execute the command again and note the remaining names. Next, replug the controller, list again the terminals and compare the list with the one noted previously.

If the security of the terminal is not crwxrwxrwx, then (assuming the terminal is ttyACM0) execute: sudo chmod 777 /dev/ttyACM0

If the user is not openhab, then check first that it exists via the Control Panel of your DSM: Control Panel > User.

If it does not, you have not properly installed openHab on your Synology as explained here. The package is indeed configuring everything itself. If it exists, assuming the terminal is ttyACM0, execute: sudo chown openhab /dev/ttyACM0

If the group is not dialout, check that it exits via the Control Panel of your DSM: Control Panel > Group. Use "Edit Members" to check that the user "openhab" is in that group. NB.: a group "uucp" must also exist and contain the user "openhab".

If not, you didn't properly install openHab on your Synology as explained here. The package is indeed configuring everything itself. If it exists, assuming the terminal is ttyACM0, execute: sudo chgrp dialout /dev/ttyACM0

Finally, to check that the right terminal is used by openHab to communicated with the Z-Wave Controller, go to its configuration via that PaperUI > Configuration > Things. Select your Z-Wave Controller and Edit it. In the "Port Configuration" part, you should see that the "Serial Port" is the terminal you found with the command ls -la /dev/ttyA*.

SmartHomeSynology Change password of OpenHab Console on Synology

To change the OpenHab Console password, you have to edit the /userdata/etc/users.properties file.

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First, open a SSH console on your Synology as root (See here).

Then, create a hashed password with the following command (replace ThisIsMyNewPassword with yours) :

echo -n ThisIsMyNewPassword | sha256sum

It should output someting like this :

8fda687cf4127db96321c86907cbea99dabb0b13aa4bf7555655e1df45e41938 -

If you installed openHab as explained here, the file to be edited is /openHAB/userdata/etc/users.properties in the share /SmartHome of your Synology. Copy the hashed string above (without the dash and the blank) between the {CRYPT} tags:

# This file contains the users, groups, and roles.
# Each line has to be of the format:
#
# USER=PASSWORD,ROLE1,ROLE2,...
# USER=PASSWORD,_g_:GROUP,...
# _g_\:GROUP=ROLE1,ROLE2,...
#
# All users, groups, and roles entered in this file are available after Karaf startup
# and modifiable via the JAAS command group. These users reside in a JAAS domain
# with the name "karaf".
#
openhab = {CRYPT}8fda687cf4127db96321c86907cbea99dabb0b13aa4bf7555655e1df45e41938{CRYPT},_g_:admingroup
_g_\:admingroup = group,admin,manager,viewer,systembundles

To test the new password, open a SSH console on openHab. As by default it may only be accessed from the localhost, the best option is to use GateOne (See here). Once logged in GateOne on your Synology, execute :

ssh -p 8101 openhab@localhost

You should be prompted to enter your password and, if correct, you will see:

Type Ctrl-D to exit the openHab console.

 

NB.: instead of logging in GateOne as admin, you can directly connect on openHab using the port '8101' and the login 'openhab' in GateOne:

SmartHomeSynology Backup & Restore openHab 2.x on Synology

In order to upgrade from openHab 2.4 to 2.5, I had to backup the configuration of openHab, uninstall the v2.4, install the v2.5 and restore the configuration.

Click to Read More

If you installed OpenHab as explained here, you can copy all the folders under /openHAB in the share /SmartHome of your Synology.

OpenHAB 2.x currently has two different ways of setting up things:

  • Either through textual configuration (in /SmartHome/openHAB/conf folder) or
  • through the user interface which saves to a “jsonDB” database (in /SmartHome/openHAB/userdata folder).

Both the textual configuration files and the database folders must be backuped (See here).

OpenHab 2.x comes now with scripts to backup and restore its configuration and database. They are availabe in the folder /runtime/bin. You can access them via a SSH Console on your Synology, under /var/packages/openHAB/target/runtime/bin/ (equivalent to /volume1/@appstore/openHAB/runtime/bin)

These scripts take care of backuping not only the files that you have manually edited in the folder /conf (items, things, scripts, ...), but also everything configured via the paperUI or HABPanel and stored in the folder /userdata (habmin, jsondb,...)

Attention, these scripts do not take care of:

  • backuping the jar files that you have installed manually. Ex.: in /addons
  • backuping the DB you would be using for, e.g., persistence, ...
  • adding the openHAB user ('openhab') to the dialout and tty groups if you did this previously

First, prepare your Synology

  1. Open a SSH console on your Synology as root (See here)
  2. Install the Synology Gear's tools, required to have the command pgrep used by the restore script of openHab, typing the command :
    synogear install
  3. Modify the script '/runtime/bin/restore' to replace unzip (not available anymore on Synology) by 7zip. Concretelly, replace:

command -v unzip >/dev/null 2>&1 || {
echo "'unzip' program was not found, please install it first." >&2
exit 1
}

with

command -v 7z >/dev/null 2>&1 || {
echo "'7z' program was not found, please install it first." >&2
exit 1
}

and 

unzip -oq "$InputFile" -d "$TempDir" || {
echo "Unable to unzip $InputFile, Aborting..." >&2
exit 1
}

with

7z x -y -o"$TempDir" "$InputFile" > /dev/null || {
echo "Unable to unzip $InputFile, Aborting..." >&2
exit 1
}

Next, use the following commands to backup your configurations:

  1. sudo -i
  2. cd /var/packages/openHAB/target
  3. synoservice --stop pkgctl-openHAB
  4. ./runtime/bin/backup
  5. synoservice --start pkgctl-openHAB

You should see something like this as output:

#########################################
openHAB 2.x.x backup script
#########################################

Using '/volume1/@appstore/openHAB/conf' as conf folder...
Using '/volume1/@appstore/openHAB/userdata' as userdata folder...
Using '/volume1/@appstore/openHAB/runtime' as runtime folder...
Using '/volume1/@appstore/openHAB/backups' as backup folder...
Writing to '/volume1/@appstore/openHAB/backups/openhab2-backup-19_12_25-12_27_33.zip'...
Making Temporary Directory if it is not already there
Using /tmp/openhab2/backup as TempDir
Copying configuration to temporary folder...
Removing unnecessary files...
Zipping folder...
Removing temporary files...
Success! Backup made in /volume1/@appstore/openHAB/backups/openhab2-backup-19_12_25-12_27_33.zip

Before uninstalling openHab, if you intend to install a new version, copy the backup into a safe folder, like the tmp folder :

cp /volume1/@appstore/openHAB/backups/openhab2-backup-19_12_25-12_27_33.zip /tmp/openhab2-backup.zip

Finally, use the following commands to restore your configurations:

  1. sudo -i
  2. cd /var/packages/openHAB/target
  3. synoservice --stop pkgctl-openHAB
  4. ./runtime/bin/restore /tmp/openhab2-backup.zip
  5. synoservice --start pkgctl-openHAB

You should see an output like this:

##########################################
openHAB 2.x.x restore script
##########################################

Using '/volume1/@appstore/openHAB/conf' as conf folder...
Using '/volume1/@appstore/openHAB/userdata' as userdata folder...
Making Temporary Directory
Extracting zip file to temporary folder.

Backup Information:
-------------------
Backup Version | 2.5.0 (You are on 2.4.0)
Backup Timestamp | 19_12_25-12_27_33
Config belongs to user | openhab
from group | users

Your current configuration will become owned by openhab:users.

Any existing files with the same name will be replaced.
Any file without a replacement will be deleted.

Okay to Continue? [y/N]: y
Moving system files in userdata to temporary folder
Deleting old userdata folder...
Restoring system files in userdata...
Deleting old conf folder...
Restoring openHAB with backup configuration...
Deleting temporary files...
Backup successfully restored!

 

If opening openHab weg page immediatly, you will see that it's restoring the UI:

Please stand by while UIs are being installed. This can take several minutes.

Once done, you will have access to your PaperUI, BasicUI, HabPanel, etc...

Synology Web Consoles to execute bash commands on Synology

I am using two different Web Consoles to execute commands on my Synology : the Web Console of Nickolay Kovalev and GateOne.

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Such Web Consoles are a bit easier to launch than a ssh console via Putty (See here). They can be opened directly from the DSM of your Synology. Another advantage is that the Web Console is still valid (opened) when the PC goes to out of sleep/hibernation state.

To use the Web Console of Nickolay Kovalev, install my Synology Package "MODS_Web_Console" available on my SSPKS server or on my GitHub

It is very convenient to execute basic commands. But you can't use it to run vi, ssh, and otehr commands which interact with the display, the keyboard, etc...

To use the more advanced Web Console GateOne, install my Synology Package "MODS_GateOne" available on my SSPKS server or on my GitHub

It is really powerful and secure. You can use it to open multiple ssh sessions, edit files with vi, etc...